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PDI System Components

The complete PDI  instrument includes:

  • optical transmitters

  • optical receiver

  • ASA signal processors

  • AIMS system software

  • data management computer


PDI systems are available in both modular and

self-contained configurations.

The laser wavelengths and power can be customized

based on the application and user needs.

The Artium PDI design incorporates several innovative features aimed at ease-of-use and data accuracy. A key feature is the ability to change the droplet size measurement range without requiring the user to change lenses or realign the optics. This can be accomplished by changing the laser beam separation and selecting different masks in the receiver via software. A software-controlled aperture module also allows for the selection of a variety of apertures. A new version of the ASA is now available for improved data accuracy at high speeds in dense environment. Communication between the signal processors and computer are via fiber links which are immune to electronic noise. The AIMS software includes an auto-setup feature that automatically selects the processor and optics settings for optimal performance in complex sprays.

PDI Components

System Components

Key Artium PDI Developments

The following are some of the key innovations incorporated into the Artium PDI instruments:

  • Hardware and software systems for ease of selecting the laser beam expansion, drop size range, and sample volume diameter.

  • Hardware and software systems for selecting the receiver aperture to optimize the size of the sample volume. A software algorithm is used to provide information on the probability of coincidence (more than one particle in the sample volume) and to optimize the aperture selection. 

  • Increased droplet size dynamic range from 50-1 to 100-1 (i.e. drops from 2-200 µm, 3-300 µm, etc.)

  • Advanced burst signal detection using digital means based on signal to noise ratio and quadrature analog methods.

  • Automatic set up of the electronics to adapt to the prevailing flow conditions (U.S. Patent 7.564.564).

  • Quadrature down-mixing and complex sampling of the signals.

  • Digital sampling and FFT processing of the true complex signals (real and imaginary) for optimum frequency and phase measurements. 

  • Automatic adaptation to the varying signal burst lengths. 

  • High resolution signal sampling of the entire Doppler burst signal with up to 100,000 ADC samples over the sampled signal record. 

  • Sampled signals recorded to allow re-processing at different validation criteria to allow maximum accuracy and performance.

  • Automatic gain selection by inputting the desired size measurement range.

  • Software algorithms to to avoid coincidence errors by parsing signals that may be composed of more than one droplet that passes the sample volume at one time (U.S. Patent 7,788,067, EPO/AT537425T). Iterative signal processing using software algorithms for the separation of signals based on peak detection, signal frequency, and phase. Method optimizes the extraction of Doppler signals in dense sprays. 

  • Redundant phase measurements for advanced signal validation and reliability.

  • Laser power to as high as 1 Watt DPSS lasers for the sizing channel. This allows the instrument to cope with high density sprays that have significant light extinction. 

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